How to Cite Sources in a Paper

Assembling a List of Works Cited in Your Paper is a good place to start when compiling citations. It presents examples of citations from journal articles, books, etc. in these formats: APA, Chicago Style, MLA and Turabian.




Why?
Documenting sources used in a paper can be challenging. Many different citation styles exist, with specific rules for many source types — journal articles, books, Web sites, etc. This page refers to services designed to help you cite. Note:

  • Always ask your class instructor for the preferred style and edition for the course.
  • When using a program to format citations, always double-check the final result.
  • These sites do not give instructions for all types of sources. Refer to the print copy of the style manual if there is not an appropriate example online.

Your library may provide a citation management program, such as RefWorks or EndNote, to help manage and format your citations. Check at your library.

Cite Properly to Avoid Plagiarism! Plagiarism, "the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work" (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd ed.), can be committed as an accidental oversight or intentionally. Plagiarism is a very serious academic offense with serious consequences.




Citation
Generator Services
format a citation based on data you provide:




Style
Manuals
(books) that may be available in your library:




More Online Guides:


Acknowledgments: This page was compiled by Nancy Connor, Cuyahoga Community College, and Linda Rich, Bowling Green State University. OhioLINK thanks the following organizations and individuals for permission to reference their Web sites for this page: Bedford/St. Martin's; the Hekman Library of Calvin College; Kelley A. Lawton and Laura Cousineau of Duke University Libraries; the Modern Language Association; the National Library of Medicine; the Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL); the Paul Robeson Library at Rutgers University; and the Writing Center at Yale University.

 

November 2009

Updated September 2014